By Bill Yenne
When the Oracle of Delphi advised Alexander the good that he was once invincible, it used to be correct.
The son of the nice King Philip II of Macedonia, Alexander used to be knowledgeable via Aristotle and commanded a wing of his father's military within the victory over the Thebans and Athenians on the conflict of Chaeronea―all while he was once nonetheless only a youngster. by the point of his loss of life at age 32, he had gathered an empire that stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River and integrated all of Persia and so much of Egypt. He governed as either the shah of Persia and as a pharaoh of Egypt via correct of conquest, and he was once additionally topped king of Asia.
Here, historian invoice Yenne illuminates the mythical imaginative and prescient of this classical hero. displaying the simplest qualities of a battlefield chief, Alexander was once audacious, competitive, fearless and triumphant. His unfailing integration of strategic imaginative and prescient and tactical genius took him to the ends of the earth, and into immortality as an army chief. Alexander's impact on cultural and political historical past and the scope of his army prowess continues to be awe-inspiring to this day.
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Extra resources for Alexander the Great: Lessons from History's Undefeated General (World Generals Series)
102 Ω ALEXANDER the nice A 19th century ornamental frieze depicting Alexander in profile, donning his helmet. (Author’s assortment) A teenaged Alexander (left) is urged by means of Aristotle in his father’s palace. Alexander endured to replace letters with the good thinker in the course of his later campaigns in Asia. (Author’s assortment) (above) The Macedonian phalanx triumphs over Thracian cavalry because of their lengthy spears, referred to as sarissas. (Author’s assortment) (left) This 19th century representation of a basrelief in Tarsus in Asia Minor depicts Alexander with horns. On cash and in sculptures that date to his time, he's frequently proven with ram’s horns, symbolizing his dating to the god Zeus, or in Egyptian mythology, Amun. (Author’s assortment) Alexander approximately misplaced his lifestyles within the conflict of Granicus. He had crushed off an assault from Rhoesaces, yet Spithridates had struck him and was once approximately to bring the coup de grace. fortunately, Cleitus the Black dashed up and bring to a halt the Persian’s arm. (Author’s assortment) This representation is of a moment century Roman mosaic depicting the conflict of Issus that used to be present in the ruins of Pompeii. Alexander is on his horse on the left, whereas a anxious Darius is visible in his chariot at the correct. (Author’s assortment) Alexander and a few of his officials survey the enemy shielding positions from excessive atop one among his siege engines in the course of the crusade opposed to the island citadel of Tyre in 332 BC. (Author’s assortment) Defenders watch from Tyre’s towering fortifications as vessels from the fleet dependable to Alexander procedure one of many city’s harbors. (Author’s assortment) In the spring of 331 BC, Alexander traveled in the course of the wilderness to Siwa Oasis to go to the mythical Oracle of the Egyptian deity Amun, whom the Greeks known as Ammon. The Oracle instructed Alexander that he used to be the son of Zeus. (Author’s assortment) This 1897 journal representation through André Castaigne depicts Persian chariots, with scythes on their hubcaps, charging the Macedonian line on the conflict of Gaugamela. The Persians additionally fielded a small variety of elephants within the conflict. (Author’s assortment) Alexander reviews the lifeless physique of his archrival, Darius, the king of Persia, in Bactria in the summertime of 330 BC. Murdered via conspirators from inside his personal military, Darius acquired a royal funeral from Alexander. in response to a few bills, Alexander could have arrived in time to listen to Darius’s ultimate phrases. (Author’s assortment) A 19th century representation of Alexander’s troops utilizing flotation units to pass a river in crucial Asia, potentially the Syr Darya, recognized to the Greeks because the Jaxartes. Alexander, having followed Asian customs, is conveyed throughout in a ship, shaded via a parasol. be aware the snow-capped peaks of the Hindu Kush. (Author’s assortment) As depicted during this 1899 representation via André Castaigne, the Macedonian phalanx finally controlled to rout the elephant cavalry on the Hydaspes, yet simply with nice hassle. (Author’s assortment) A 19th century representation of a classical bust of Alexander the nice.